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Category: Romanization

Romanization systems used on this website

  1. Hakka Pinyin
  2. Shanghainese Pinyin
  3. Taiwanese Pinyin
  4. Thai Romanization

Hakka Pinyin

Initials

StopsNasalsFricativesApproximants
UnvoicedAspirated
[p]
b
[pʰ]
p
[m]
m
[f]
f
[ʋ]
v
[t]
d
[tʰ]
t
[n]
n
[l]
l
[k]
g
[kʰ]
k
[ŋ]
ng
[h]
h
[tɕ]
j
[tɕʰ]
q
[ɲ]
ng¹
[ɕ]
x
[j]
y
[ts]
z
[tsʰ]
c
[s]
s
  1. preceding i

Finals

IPAPinyinIPAPinyinIPAPinyin IPAPinyinIPAPinyin
[a]a[i̯a]ia[u̯a]ua[ɿ]
[ai̯]ai[i̯ai̯]iai[u̯ai̯]uai
[au̯]ao[i̯au̯]iao
[am]am[i̯am]iam[ɿm]im¹
[an]an[i̯an]ian[u̯an]uan[ɿn]in¹
[aŋ]ang[i̯aŋ]iang[u̯aŋ]uang
[ap]ap[i̯ap]iap[ɿp]ip¹
[at]at[i̯at]iat[u̯at]uat[ɿt]it¹
[ak]ak[i̯ak]iak[u̯ak]uak
[ɛ]e[i̯ɛ]ie[u̯ɛ]ue[i]i
[ɛu̯]eo[iu̯]iu
[ɛm]em[im]im
[ɛn]en[i̯ɛn]ien[u̯ɛn]uen[in]in
[ɛp]ep[ip]ip
[ɛt]et[i̯ɛt]iet[u̯ɛt]uet[it]it
[ɔ]o[i̯ɔ]io[u̯̯ɔ]uo[u]u
[ɔi̯]oi[ui̯]ui[i̯ui̯]iui
[ɔn]on[i̯ɔn]ion[u̯̯ɔn]uon[un]un[i̯un]iun
[ɔŋ]ong[i̯ɔŋ]iong[u̯̯ɔŋ]uong[uŋ]ung[i̯uŋ]iung
[ɔt]ot
[ɔk]ok[i̯ɔk]iok[u̯̯ɔk]uok[uk]uk[i̯uk]iuk
  1. following z, c or s

Tones (Meixian)

ToneNo.IPATone markDescription
DefaultTone sandhi
阴平1˦ / ˧˥áhigh levelhigh rising
阳平2˩alow level
上声3˧˩ǎlow falling
去声4˥˧ / ˥àhigh fallinghigh level
阴入5˩ʔatlow short (ending on p/t/k)
阳入6˥ʔāthigh short (ending on p/t/k)
轻声(0)˧neutral tone

Tone sandhi

The tone sandhi applies to 1st and 4th tone syllables if preceding a 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th or neutral tone.


Shanghainese Pinyin

Initials

StopsNasalsFricatives
VoicedUnvoicedAspiratedVoicedUnvoiced
[b]
bb
[p]
b
[pʰ]
p
[m]
m
[v]
v
[f]
f
[d]
dd
[t]
d
[tʰ]
t
[n]
n
[ɺ]
l
[g]
gg
[k]
g
[kʰ]
k
[ŋ]
ng
[ɦ]
hh¹
[h]
h
[dʑ]
djj
[tɕ]
j
[tɕʰ]
q
[ȵ]
[ʑ]
jj
[ɕ]
x
[ts]
z
[tsʰ]
c
[z]
zz
[s]
s
  1. Preceding i, u or ü, hh is written:
    • hh + i → yi
    • hh + iu → you
    • hh + i + a/e/o → y + a/e/o
    • hh + u → wu
    • hh + ui/uh/un → wei/weh/wen
    • hh + u + a/e/o → w + a/e/o
    • hh + ü → yu
  2. Preceding i or ü

Finals

IPAPinyinIPAPinyinIPAPinyinIPAPinyin
[ɿ][i]i[ɯ]u[y]ü²
[a]a[i̯a]ia[ɯ̯a]ua
[ɛ]ai[i̯ɛ]ie[ɯ̯ɛ]uai
[ɔ]ao[i̯ɔ]iao
[e]ei[ɯ̯e]u(e)i
[ø]eu[ɯ̯ø]ue[y̯ø]üe²
[o]o
[ɤ]ou[i̯ɤ]i(o)u
[ɐʔ]ah[i̯aʔ]iah[ɯ̯ɑʔ]uah
[əʔ]eh[i̯ɪʔ]ih[ɯ̯əʔ]u(e)h[y̯ɪʔ]üh²
[oʔ]oh[i̯oʔ]ioh
[ã]an[i̯ã]ian[ɯ̯ã]uan
[ɑ̃]ang[i̯ɑ̃]iang[ɯ̯ɑ̃]uang
[ɘn]en[iɲ]in[ɯ̯ɘn]u(e)n[yɲ]ün²
[ʊŋ]ong[i̯ʊŋ]iong
[əɻ]er[m̩]m[ŋ̩]ng
  1. following z, c, zz or s
  2. ü is written as u following y, djj, j, q, jj or x

Tones

ToneTone markDescription
阴平àfalling (voiceless initials only)
阴去amid rising (voiceless initials only)
阳去low rising (voiced initials only)
阴入ahhigh short (voiceless initials only)
阳入mid short (voiced initials only)

Tone sandhi

In Shanghainese, polysyllabic words have a pitch accent instead of tones, depending on the first syllable.

First syllableAccent pattern
阴平high - low - low - low
阴去/阳去/阴入low - high - low - low
阳入low - high - high - high

Taiwanese Pinyin

Initials

StopsNasalsFricatives/
approximants
VoicedUnvoicedAspirated
[b]
bb
[p]
b
[pʰ]
p
[m]
m
[t]
d
[tʰ]
t
[n]
n
[l]
l
[g]
gg
[k]
g
[kʰ]
k
[ŋ]
ng
[h]
h
[dʑ]
jj
[tɕ]
j
[tɕʰ]
q
[ɕ]
x
[dz]
zz
[ts]
z
[tsʰ]
c
[s]
s

Finals

SemivowelsPlain wowelsNasal wowelsConsonants
IPAPinyinIPAPinyinIPAPinyinIPAPinyin
[i̯]y--i-[a]a[ã]ann[m]-n
[u̯]w--u-[ai̯]ai[ãi̯]ainn[n]-m
[au̯]ao[ãu̯]aonn[ŋ]-ng
[i̯ə]yo-io[ə]e
[e]ei[ẽ]einn[p]-p
[i]i[ĩ]inn[t]-t
[ɔ]o[ɔ̃]onn[k]-k
[u]u[ũ]unn[ʔ]-h

Tones

ToneNo.IPATone markDescription
阴平1˥āhigh level
阳平5˨˦ámid rising
上声2/6˥˩àhigh falling
阴去3˧˩ǎlow falling
阳去7˧amid level
阴入4˧ʔahmid short (ending on p/t/k/h)
阳入8˥ʔāhhigh short (ending on p/t/k/h)

Thai Romanization

based on Royal Thai

Consonants

StopsNasalsFricativesApproximants
VoicedUnvoicedAspirated
[b]
b
[p]
p
[pʰ]
ph
[m]
m
[f]
f
[w]
w
[d]
d
[t]
t
[tʰ]
th
[n]
n
[s]
s
[l]
l
[r]
r
[tɕ]
j
[tɕʰ]
ch
[j]
y
[k]
k
[kʰ]
kh
[ŋ]
ng
[h]
h

Vowels

ShortLong
[a]a[aː]a:
[ɛ]ae[ɛː]ae:
[e]e[eː]e:
[i]i[iː]i:
[ɔ]aw[ɔː]aw:
[o]o[oː]o:
[u]u[uː]u:
[ɤ]oe[ɤː]oe:
[ɯ]ue[ɯː]ue:
ShortLong
[ai]ai[aːi]a:i
[ɔi]oi[ɔːi]awi
[oːi]o:i
[ui]ui
[ɤːi]oei
[au]ao[aːu]a:o
[ɛːu]aeo
[eu]eo[eːu]e:o
[iu]io
ShortLong
[ia]ia[iːa]i:a
[ua]ua[uːa]u:a
[ɯa]uea[ɯːa]ue:a
[uai]uai
[ɯai]ueai
[iau]iao

Tones

Tone letterIPATone markDescription
H˦˥áhigh rising
M˧amid level
L˨˩àlow falling
R˩˥ǎrising
F˥˩âfalling